Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that starts in the cells of the breast. A malignant tumor is a group of cancer cells that can should intraductal papillomas be removed into invade surrounding tissues or spread metastasize to distant areas of the body.
The disease occurs almost entirely in women, but men can get it, too. The remainder of this document refers only to breast cancer in women.
For information on breast cancer in men, see our document, Breast Cancer in Men. The normal breast To understand breast cancer, it helps to have some basic knowledge about the normal structure of the breasts, shown in the diagram below. The female breast is made up mainly of lobules milk-producing glandsducts tiny tubes that carry the milk from the lobules to the nippleand stroma fatty tissue and connective tissue surrounding the ducts and lobules, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels.
Most breast cancers begin in the cells that line the ducts ductal cancers. Some begin in the cells that line the lobules lobular cancerswhile a small number start in other tissues. The lymph lymphatic system of the breast The lymph system is important to understand because it is one way breast cancers can spread. This system has several parts.
Prevenirea cancerului prin intermediul unor programe de screening
Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped collections of immune system cells cells that are important cancer de piele pe nas fighting infections that are connected by lymphatic vessels.
Lymphatic vessels are like small veins, except that they carry a clear fluid called lymph instead of blood away from the breast. Lymph contains tissue fluid and waste products, as well as immune system cells.
Breast cancer cells can enter lymphatic vessels and begin to grow in lymph nodes.
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Most lymphatic vessels in the breast connect to lymph nodes under the arm axillary nodes. Some lymphatic vessels connect to lymph nodes inside the chest internal mammary nodes and those either above or below the collarbone supraclavicular or infraclavicular nodes.
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If the cancer cells have spread to lymph nodes, there is a higher chance that the cells could have also gotten into the bloodstream and spread metastasized to other sites in the body. The more lymph nodes that have breast cancer, the more likely it is that the cancer may be found in other organs as well. Because of this, finding cancer in one or more lymph nodes often affects the treatment plan. Still, not all women with cancer cells in their lymph nodes develop metastases, and some women can have no cancer cells in their lymph nodes and later develop metastases.
Benign breast lumps Most breast lumps are not cancerous benign. Still, some may need to be sampled should intraductal papillomas be removed viewed under a microscope to prove they are not cancer.
Fibrocystic changes Most lumps turn out to be fibrocystic changes. The term fibrocystic refers to fibrosis and cysts. Fibrosis is the formation of scar-like fibrous tissue, and cysts are fluid-filled sacs.
Fibrocystic changes can cause breast swelling and pain. Her breasts may feel lumpy and, sometimes, she may notice a clear or slightly cloudy nipple discharge.
Other benign breast lumps Benign breast tumors such as fibroadenomas or intraductal papillomas are abnormal growths, but they are not cancerous and do not spread outside the breast to other should intraductal papillomas be removed.
They are not life threatening. Still, some benign breast conditions are important because women with these conditions have a higher risk of developing breast cancer.
General breast cancer terms Here are some of the key words used to describe breast cancer. Carcinoma This is a term used to describe a cancer that begins in the lining layer epithelial cells of organs like the breast. Nearly all breast cancers are carcinomas either ductal carcinomas or lobular carcinomas.
Adenocarcinoma An adenocarcinoma is a type of carcinoma that starts in glandular tissue tissue that makes and secretes a substance. The ducts and lobules of the breast are glandular tissue they make breast milkso cancers starting in these areas are often called adenocarcinomas. Carcinoma in situ This term should intraductal papillomas be removed used for an early stage of cancer, when it is confined to the layer of cells where it began.
In breast cancer, in situ means that the cancer cells remain confined to ducts ductal carcinoma in situ. The cells have not grown into invaded deeper tissues in the breast or spread to other organs in should intraductal papillomas be removed body.
Cancer prevention through screening programs
Carcinoma in situ of squamous papilloma nasal septum breast is sometimes referred to as non-invasive or pre-invasive breast cancer because it may develop into an invasive breast cancer if left untreated. When cancer cells are confined to the lobules it is called lobular carcinoma in situ. Most breast cancers are invasive carcinomas — either invasive ductal carcinoma or invasive lobular carcinoma.
Sarcoma Sarcomas are cancers that start in connective tissues such as muscle tissue, fat tissue, or blood vessels. Sarcomas of the breast are rare.
For instance, hair loss, which is one of the major concerns for some patients, such as a young lady with BM of breast cancer, is a less frequently encountered problem with SRS than WBRT as a result of the smaller irradiated field size and focalized dose distribution Figure 2. All the aforementioned advantages of SRS are provided by utilization of multiple convergent narrow beams to deliver high dose focal irradiation in a single fraction by using multiple cobalt sources, linear accelerators or cyclotrons 37, Similar with neurosurgery, SRS alone or in combination with WBRT has been exhibited to associate with prolonged overall survival, local control and also better neurologic status in these patients compared to WBRT alone 33,
Types of breast cancers There are several types of breast cancer, but some of them are quite rare. In some cases a single breast tumor can be a combination of these types or be a mixture of invasive and in situ cancer.
Ductal carcinoma in situ Ductal carcinoma in situ DCIS; also known as intraductal carcinoma is the most common type of non-invasive breast cancer. DCIS means that the cancer cells are inside the ducts but have not spread through the walls of the ducts into the surrounding breast tissue.
About 1 in 5 new breast cancer cases will be DCIS.
Nearly all women diagnosed at this early stage of breast cancer can be cured. A mammogram is often the best way to find DCIS early. When DCIS is diagnosed, the pathologist a doctor specializing in diagnosing disease from tissue samples will look for areas of dead or dying cancer cells, called tumor necrosis, within the tissue sample. If necrosis is present, the tumor is likely to be more aggressive.
The term comedocarcinoma is often used should intraductal papillomas be removed describe DCIS with necrosis. Invasive or infiltrating ductal carcinoma IDC starts in a milk passage duct of the breast, breaks through the wall of the duct, and grows into the fatty tissue of the breast.
The benefits are certain in some cases: life years gained for those with curable disease, avoidance of morbidity, reassurance that the disease is at a very early stage, avoiding expenses of treatment for advanced cancers and extra years of productivity. But screening tests also have disadvantages, so a balanced decision must be made, with the help of clinical randomized trials. In this article I will present the current methods for screening accepted for general population and particular screening reserved for persons at high risk.
At this point, it may be able to spread metastasize to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system and bloodstream. About 8 of 10 invasive breast cancers are infiltrating ductal carcinomas. Invasive or infiltrating lobular carcinoma Invasive lobular carcinoma ILC starts in the milk-producing glands lobules. Like IDC, it can spread metastasize to other parts of the body. About 1 in 10 invasive breast cancers is an ILC.
Invasive lobular carcinoma may be harder to detect by a mammogram than invasive ductal carcinoma. Usually there is no single lump or tumor. Instead, inflammatory breast cancer IBC makes the skin of the breast look red and feel warm.
It also may give the breast skin a thick, pitted should intraductal papillomas be removed that looks a lot like an orange peel. Doctors now know that these changes are not caused by inflammation or infection, but by cancer cells blocking lymph vessels in the skin. The affected breast may become larger or firmer, tender, or itchy. In its early stages, inflammatory breast cancer is often mistaken for an infection in the breast called mastitis. Often this cancer is first treated as an infection with antibiotics.
If the symptoms are caused by cancer, they will not improve, and a biopsy will find cancer cells.
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Because there is no actual lump, it may not show up on a mammogram, which may make it even harder to find it early. This type of breast cancer tends to have a higher chance of spreading and a ce inseamna oxiuri outlook prognosis than typical invasive ductal or lobular cancer.
For more details about this condition, see our document, Inflammatory Breast Cancer. Triple-negative breast cancer: This term is used to describe breast cancers detoxifierea plamanilor invasive ductal carcinomas whose cells lack estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors, and do not have an excess of the HER2 protein on their surfaces.
Breast cancers with these characteristics tend to occur more often in younger women and in African-American women. Triple-negative breast cancers tend to grow and spread more quickly than most other types of breast cancer.
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Because the tumor cells lack these certain receptors, neither hormone therapy nor drugs that target HER2 are effective treatments but chemotherapy can still be useful if needed.
Paget disease of the nipple: This type of breast cancer starts in the breast ducts and spreads to the skin of the nipple and then to the areola, the dark circle around should intraductal papillomas be removed nipple. The skin should intraductal papillomas be removed the nipple and areola often appears crusted, scaly, and red, with areas of bleeding or oozing. The woman may notice burning or itching.
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Paget disease is almost always associated with either ductal carcinoma in situ DCIS or infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Should intraductal papillomas be removed often requires mastectomy. If no lump can be felt in the breast tissue, and the biopsy shows DCIS but no invasive cancer, the outlook prognosis is excellent.
If invasive cancer is present, the prognosis is not as good, and the cancer will need to be staged and treated like any other invasive cancer. Phyllodes tumor: This very rare breast tumor develops in the stroma connective tissue of the breast, in contrast to carcinomas, which develop in the ducts or lobules. Other names for these tumors include phylloides tumor and cystosarcoma phyllodes.
These tumors are usually benign but on rare occasions may be malignant. Benign phyllodes tumors are treated by removing the tumor along with a margin of normal breast tissue.
A malignant phyllodes tumor is treated by removing it along with a wider margin of normal tissue, or by mastectomy. Surgery is often all that is needed, but these cancers may not respond as well to the other treatments used for more common breast cancers.
When a malignant phyllodes tumor has spread, it can be treated with the chemotherapy given for soft-tissue sarcomas this is discussed in detail in our document, Soft-tissue Sarcomas.