Approximately one-quarter of these cancers occur in countries with low socio-economic levels where food deficiencies are implicated in etiology by the imbalance between physical activity and energy intake, while high sugar and fat content are the main factors incriminated in developed countries where a third of the most common cancers occur.
The relationship between diet and cancer risk is complex. Thermal food processing can result in carcinogenic byproducts. For instance, frying or smoking meat can lead to the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzopyrene. Smoked meat and smoked fish consumption has been linked to gastric cancer in countries with high intake, such as Japan. Some vegetables, such as celery, endives, cabbage, spinach or turnips, have a high nitrate content, especially if they are stored for more than two days, if they undergo thermal processing or if they are combined with animal proteins.
As nitrates change to nitrosamines, the carcinogenic potential of these types of food increases. Diet can also endometrial cancer etiology as a protection against cancer. A high intake of fruits and vegetables that contain large amounts of fibers has been often associated with a decreased colon cancer risk. Similar associations have been noted for gastric cancer and for other epithelial malignancies such as lung, pharynx, larynx, esophageal and breast cancer.
Consuming large amounts of food that contain phytoestrogens selective estrogen modulators may contribute to primary and secondary prophylaxis of endocrine-dependent cancers. The protective effect against cancer found for both fruits and vegetables is most likely due to a high content of vegetable fibers, specific vitamins and certain bioactive compounds endometrial cancer etiology as carotene found in red vegetablesfolates found in green vegetablesglucosinolates brassica and alkyl sulfates garlic.
The link between cancer and diet is as complex as neoplastic disease itself. Current studies indicate that certain foods and nutrients can help prevent or, on the contrary, develop certain types of cancer.
For the other risk factors we have the possibility to endometrial cancer etiology them, including diet. Keywords diet, cancer, prophylaxis Rezumat Factorii alimentari joacă un rol complex în etiopatogeneza cancerelor umane.
Aproximativ un sfert din aceste tipuri de cancer apar în ţările cu un nivel socioeconomic scăzut, unde deficienţele alimentare sunt implicate în etiologie prin dezechilibrul dintre activitatea fizică endometrial cancer etiology consumul de energie, în timp ce conţinutul ridicat de zahăr şi grăsimi este principalul factor incriminat în ţările dezvoltate unde apar o treime din cele mai frecvente tipuri de cancer.
Relaţia dintre dietă şi riscul de cancer este complexă. Procesarea termică a unor alimente poate avea ca rezultat produse secundare cancerigene. De exemplu, carnea prăjită sau afumată poate duce la formarea de hidrocarburi aromatice policiclice, cum ar fi benzopiranul.
Consumul crescut de peşte şi carne afumată a fost asociat cu cancerul gastric în unele ţări, cum ar fi Japonia. Unele legume, precum ţelina, andivele, varza, spanacul sau strugurii, au un conţinut ridicat de nitraţi, endometrial cancer etiology ales dacă sunt depozitate mai mult de două zile, dacă sunt supuse procesării termice sau dacă sunt combinate cu proteine animale.
Pe măsură ce nitraţii se transformă în nitrozamine, creşte potenţialul carcinogen al acestor tipuri de alimente. Dieta poate acţiona şi ca factor de protecţie împotriva cancerului. Un aport ridicat de fructe şi legume care conţin cantităţi mari de fibre a fost deseori asociat cu un risc scăzut de cancer de colon.
Asociaţii similare au fost observate pentru cancerul gastric şi pentru alte afecţiuni maligne epiteliale, cum ar fi cancerul pulmonar, de faringe, de laringe, cancerul esofagian şi cel de sân. Consumul unor cantităţi mari de alimente care conţin fitoestrogeni modulatori selectivi ai estrogenului poate contribui la profilaxia primară şi secundară a cancerelor endocrin-dependente.
Efectul protector împotriva cancerului, constatat atât pentru fructe, cât şi pentru legume, este cel mai probabil datorat unui conţinut ridicat de endometrial cancer etiology vegetale, vitamine şi anumiţi compuşi bioactivi, cum ar fi carotenul aflat în legume roşiifolaţii din legumele verziglucozinolatul Brassica şi sulfatul de alchil usturoi.
Legătura dintre cancer şi dietă este la fel de complexă ca şi boala neoplazică. Studiile actuale indică faptul că anumite alimente şi substanţe nutritive pot preveni sau, dimpotrivă, pot endometrial cancer etiology la dezvoltarea unor tipuri de cancer. Deşi există mulţi factori care cresc riscul de cancer şi care nu pot fi schimbaţi cum ar fi genele şi mediulexistă şi alţii care pot fi controlaţi.
Pentru ceilalţi factori de risc, avem posibilitatea de a-i schimba, inclusiv dieta. Cuvinte cheie dietă cancer profilaxie Nutrition-related factors play a complex role in the etiopathogenesis of human cancers.
About a quarter of these endometrial cancer etiology occur in countries with low socioeconomic levels, where nutritional deficiencies are involved in etiology via imbalance between physical activity and energy intake, while high sugar and fat content are the main factors incriminated in developed countries where a third of the most common cancers occur 1.
Role of nutrition in cancer
There are numerous data in favor of the idea that diet is a factor involved in the etiology of some cancers such as colon, stomach, pancreas, breast, ovary, uterus, prostate cancer. Several nutritional factor assumptions have been formulated to explain variations in the incidence of a particular neoplasm in different countries. For example, consumption of smoked fish and smoked meat in Japan endometrial cancer etiology been incriminated in the development of stomach cancer.
Nutrition can intervene in carcinogenesis process in circumstances such as: a.
Rolul nutriţiei în cancer
Providing a source of carcinogens or procarcinogens: foods containing carcinogenic substances or these may occur in the process of food processing or preservation. Encouraging the formation of carcinogenic substances: nitrates and nitrites, whose concentration can be elevated in some foods or drinking water, are transformed into nitrosamines. Changing the effects of carcinogens: nutrition can play a protective role against carcinogens through fiber content, vitamins and antioxidants vitamins C, E and A, coenzyme Q10, melatonin, selenium, zinc.
Selenium and vitamin E reduce the risk of prostate cancer. A diet rich in dietary fibers lowers the risk of metastatic cancer diagnosis, oral cavity, esophagus, stomach and lung cancers. A number of studies have suggested the protective effect of folic acid in reducing the risk of colon cancer.
This effect can be explained by two theories: 1 the synthesis of radicals, donors of methyl groups endometrial cancer etiology by folate with endometrial cancer etiology of DNA and regulation of gene expression; 2 there is a conversion of uracil to thiamine facilitated by folate, a mechanism involved in DNA repair 3. Epidemiological data suggest that increased consumption of fat, protein, salt and a diet with low dietary fibers content USA, Western Europe are associated with an increased risk of colon cancer.
Rolul nutriţiei în cancer
The incidence of breast cancer is also high in countries where there is an increased consumption of saturated fats USA, Scandinavia. The incidence of breast cancer in descendants of Japanese emigrants in the USA is as high as that of the American native population and much higher than that of Japanese residents, suggesting an important role in the diet 3.
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In the process of preparing food by thermal wart virus cause, substances with a carcinogenic potential may result. Thus, benzopyrene and other aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons may result from the process of thermal processing pyrolysis of foods, for example, when the meat is roasted or smoked.
Vegetables such as celery, endive, cabbage, spinach, kohlrabi contain large quantities of nitrates, especially if they are preserved for more than two days, if they are thermally prepared or combined with endometrial cancer etiology, resulting in nitrosamines that have carcinogenic potential. A number of substances such as preservatives or those intended to give color, taste, flavor or a certain consistency can cause potentially mutagenic effects, which is why some of these have been removed from the market.
For example, an increased endometrial cancer etiology of saccharin determines bladder cancer in mice. Endometrial cancer etiology is no clear epidemiological evidence in humans concerning the involvement of saccharin in the etiology of cancers.
The nitrite or nitrate content nitrates can be reduced to nitrite in the gastrointestinal tract via the intervention of Helicobacter pylori of foods, and especially of meat, is another controversial topic. The fact that nitrites combine with secondary amines to form nitrosamines in the gastrointestinal tract is an essential argument for diminishing the consumption of nitrite as food additives 3,4. The factors in the diet can also play a protective role.
Thus, increased consumption of vegetables and fruits with high fiber content has been consistently associated with a low risk of colon cancer. Such arguments are also available for stomach cancers and other epithelial cancers such as lung, pharynx, endometrial cancer etiology, esophagus and breast cancers 3,4. It has been shown that strategies including diet modification involving estrogen modulators selective estrogen modulators such as phytoestrogens can provide effective strategies for the prevention of cancers mediated by endocrine mechanisms.
Aflatoxin — a mycotoxin of Aspergillus flavus and A.
Abstract Full Text Abstract : Candida belongs to normal human micro-flora; it is the main infection source. Thus, it can be transmitted by contact with skin and secretions, by inject ion with not sterile needles and by dissemination of endogenous infection.
Endometrial cancer etiology carcinogenic role of the hepatitis B and C viruses, as well as the presence of aflatoxin in food is correlated with the increased incidence of liver cancer in Asian and African rice-consuming countries stored under humid conditions, rice is contaminated with the Aspergillus flavus fungus which secretes aflatoxin, a strong carcinogen involved in hepatocarcinoma etiopathogenesis 3,4.
Nutrition is a factor involved in the etiology of cancers such as colon, stomach, pancreas, breast, ovary, uterus, prostate cancers.
Several nutritional factor assumptions have been formulated to explain the variations in the incidence of a particular neoplasm in different countries.
Some substances xenobiotics from food have been associated with cancers, such as: increased fat consumption colon, prostate, endometrium and breast cancers ; polycyclic amines identified in well roasted meat have been involved in the development of gastric, colorectal, pancreatic and breast cancers; high calorie diets breast, endometrium, colon, prostate and gallbladder cancers ; animal proteins, particularly red meat breast, endometrial and colon cancers ; alcohol, particularly in smokers cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus and liver ; salted diets with smoked foods esophagus endometrial cancer etiology stomach cancers ; nitrates and food additives intestinal cancer 4,5.
Obesity After reviewing all epidemiological studies in the last 30 years, The International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC concludes that obesity represents a causal link for various forms of endometrial cancer etiology.
The association between obesity and various cancers is complex 6. The weight gain with every 5 kg increases the relative risk of developing breast cancer in postmenopausal women by 1.
Overweight is one of the most important risk factors for cancers such as colon, breast after menopauseendometrium, esophagus adenocarcinomapancreas, and kidney cancer; most likely, for gallbladder cancer also 2,6. Typical cancers in relationship to obesity are: a. Endometrial cancer — there is a strong correlation between obesity and endometrial cancer etiology cancer. So the risk of endometrial cancer in women with a weight gain of 20 kg after the age of 18 is 5 times higher.
Both obesity and weight gain are associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer.
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Colon cancer — the incidence of colon cancer increases in obese people. Renal carcinoma — obesity has an unexplained mechanism of increasing renal cancer, especially in women. Esophageal cancer of the adenocarcinoma type — obesity is considered to increase the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma, with the increase in the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux and the consecutive development of the Barett esophagus metaplastic precursor lesion of adenocarcinomas.
Some studies have shown that obesity contributes to the increase of esophageal carcinoma independent of reflux disease. Other cancers that associate endometrial cancer etiology lower risk with obesity are: pancreatic cancer it doubles the riskhepatocellular carcinoma, cardial gastric cancer due to gastroesophageal reflux with Barett metaplasiaovarian and cervical cancer limited data and lymphomas; further studies are needed to fully define these relationships 4.
Obesity has been associated with the improvement of results in male patients with metastatic malignant melanoma treated with targeted molecular medication dabarfenib and trametinib, or vemurafenib and cobinetinib and immunotherapy nivolumab, pembrolizumab or atezolizumabbut not chemotherapy dacarbazine 9. The pathophysiological mechanisms by which obesity increases the risk of developing cancers are poorly understood.
There is evidence that associates the physical inactivity and obesity with an increased risk of developing colon cancer. Several studies suggest that the association between lifestyle factors and colon cancer is mediated by hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance via the insulin-like growth factor IGF 6,7.
Increased plasma glucose level and type 2 diabetes are also recognized as risk factors for colon cancer. Two main mechanisms are incriminated: endocrine disturbances such as the installation of insulin resistance; metabolic changes metabolic X syndrome 2,6.
An increase in these cancers is estimated due to the dramatic increase in Endometrial cancer etiology in the population.
Physical activity Optimal physical activity is relevant in the primary and secondary prevention of colorectal and breast cancers. Independent of other factors, physical activity reduces endometrial cancer etiology endometrial cancer etiology of colorectal cancers and protects against postmenopausal breast cancers and endometrial cancer.
The mechanism is not elucidated, but it is believed that the weight loss affects sex hormones and specific endogenous growth factors. Moderate physical activity is recommended equivalent to a physical activity of at least 30 minutes per day, for obese people being recommended 60 minutes a day 7. Products of plant origin Most foods with a protective role against cancers endometrial cancer etiology of plant origin.
The consumption of starch-free vegetables protects against upper gastrointestinal cancers — oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus epidermoid carcinomas only and gastric adenocarcinomacolorectal, pancreatic, breast and bladder cancers. Fruit consumption protects against oropharyngeal, oesophageal, colorectal and bronchopulmonary cancers.
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Garlic probably protects against colorectal cancers, and the consumption of tomatoes protects against prostate cancers through the lycopene content. Vegetables and fruits are sources of fiber, vitamins and phytochemicals.
The protective effects of vegetables and fruit are also due to the endometrial cancer etiology of dietary fibers, specific vitamins, and bioactive components such as carotene red vegetablesfolate green vegetablesglucosinolates brassica and alkyl sulfates garlic 3,4.
Natural antioxidants are vitamins C, E and A, coenzyme Q, lycopene, melatonin, quercetin, selenium and zinc. Vitamin C has a powerful antioxidant and anti-cancer effect, and is present in fruits like berries, rosehip, broccoli, red cabbage because all vitamins are photosensitive, fruits must be stored in the dark. Thiamine and vitamin C are sensitive to heat.
Vitamin C protects vitamins A, Endometrial cancer etiology and B complex, and increases the absorption of iron and folic acid. A balanced consumption of fresh vegetables cancer de orofaringe cid vegetables cooked at low temperatures is preferable!
Vitamin A is found as ß-carotene in carrots, spinach, broccoli and green cabbage. Heavy smokers with more than one pack of cigarettes per day should not consume vitamin A supplements because this vitamin increases the risk of bronchopulmonary cancer. Vitamin E is present in polyunsaturated fatty acids from eggs, meat, fish, but also in cereals, seeds, nuts, soybeans. Some studies suggest a protective effect against prostate cancer. Lycopene is found in tomatoes when heated slowly over longer periods of time.
Selenium is an essential element found in organic and inorganic forms, in cereals, meat, fish or eggs; elevated levels of selenium correlate with low risk of prostate cancer and reduced incidence and mortality by cancer in general 3,4. Vegetables such endometrial cancer etiology endive, celery, lettuce, spinach and parsley have an increased content of nitrates when stored for more than two days, especially in winter: when these vegetables endometrial cancer etiology heated and combined with proteins, nitrosamines result, which are potentially carcinogenic 9.
A diet rich in dietary fibers can lower the risk of breast, colon, rectum and pancreas cancers. Starch-free vegetables have a low energy content, and a diet rich in these products protects against weight gain. It is recommended to limit the consumption of refined products with increased starch concentrations 8. Consumption of red meat Consumption of red meat beef, pork, lamb and horseas well as processed meat products red meat preserved in smoke, roasting, salting or adding preservatives — such as salami, ham, pemmican, bacon etc.
One of the potential mechanisms involved in the risk of eating red meat including fresh meat could be the increased iron content of hemoglobin that could have an irritating effect on the colorectal mucosa endometrial cancer etiology electrophilic aggression, which causes the initiation of carcinogenesis. Another mutagenic effect could be due to aggressive xenobiotic substances resulting from the thermal processing of foods such as aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons with a definite role in carcinogenesis.
Nitrates and nitrites added for food preservation can form carcinogens via the N-nitroso component. These components can form endogenously in the intestine by degradation of amino acid products e.
Norat published a European study that included a population ofmen and women followed-up between and 4. Alcohol Men consume more often and in larger quantities alcoholic beverages.
Also, ethanol consumption is age-related: it is increased in adults and it is declining in elderly. The economically underprivileged social classes tend to consume cheap alcohol products.
According to World Health Organization, alcohol consumption is among the top 10 risk factors, being in a causal relationship with cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus and liver. Alcohol acts synergistically in combination with smoking in determining some of the aforementioned cancers. In case of liver cancers, there are strong arguments that it causes cirrhosis, which is a determining factor of hepatocarcinomas, due to the action of chronic lesions caused by alcohol abuse.
The association between alcohol consumption and the endometrial cancer etiology risk of breast cancer is attributed to the association with estrogen action 2. Major enzymes involved in ethanol metabolism are: alcohol dehydrogenase ADHwhich oxidizes ethanol to acetaldehyde, and ALDH aldehyde-dehydrogenasewhich metabolizes acetaldehyde to acetate.
The homozygotes of the ALDH2 allele, whose product is inactive, are usually abstinent because the absence of the enzyme causes significant facial erythema, physical discomfort and severe toxic reactions.
Heterozygotes have no severe side effects, but have an increased risk for alcohol-induced neoplasms 2.