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Image: © Nicolle Rager Fuller, National Science Foundation A blood type that can turn blood transfusions deadly has proven a perplexing mystery for 60 years. Now researchers cancer colon types finally identified the secret behind the blood type known as "Vel," findings that could help make blood safer cancer colon types hundreds of thousands of people worldwide.
The mystery began inwhen a year-old woman in New York, sick with colon cancerreceived a blood transfusion and unexpectedly suffered from a severe and potentially fatal rejection of the blood. Investigators referred to her, using her last name, simply as Patient Vel.
Further research found that Mrs. Vel had developed a potent immune response against some unknown compound found on the red blood cells she had received.
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However, scientists could not identify this compound, opening the mystery of a new blood type, "Vel-negative. Vel was not alone; more thanpeople in Europe and more thanin North America share the Vel-negative blood type. For the 1 in 2, people of European descent with the rare blood, receiving a Vel-positive transfusion can easily result in kidney failure and death.
Everyone's red blood cells are coated with molecules that can serve as what are called antigens, compounds that cancer colon types the immune system to respond.
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It does so by pumping out proteins known as antibodies that latch onto and neutralize those antigens. However, people do not normally produce antibodies to their own red blood cell antigens, only to foreign cancer colon types — such as when they receive blood from another person who has a different blood type, and therefore an antigen they lack.
However, many less-common blood groups also exist, such as Vel, which can potentially make transfusions dangerous for patients.
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Vel-negative blood is one of the most difficult blood types to supply in many countries. This is partly due to its rarity, but also to the dearth of any systematic way to screen for Vel-negative blood from donors.
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Previously, to identify whether someone was Vel-negative or Vel-positive, doctors had to use antibodies generated by the few known Vel-negative people after their bodies had rejected transfused blood. Many hospitals and blood banks lack access to these antibodies and thus any way to test for Vel.
Understanding rare blood types Now Ballif, along with molecular biologist Lionel Arnaud of the French National Institute of Blood Transfusion and their colleagues have cancer colon types the mysterious culprit behind Vel. To find the missing piece, the international team used antibodies from Vel-negative patients to purify the Vel protein from human red blood cell membranes. Ballif and his colleagues then identified cancer colon types culprit, a tiny molecule researchers had never before observed, andwhich is now dubbed small integral membrane protein 1, or SMIM1.
Genetic analysis of 70 Vel-negative people revealed that each such patient was is papillomatosis contagious a short gene that instructs cells how to make SMIM1.
With Vel, the global count of understood blood types now rises to The researchers developed DNA-based tests for identifying Vel-negative patients.
These tests can easily be integrated into existing blood testing procedures cancer colon types clinicians can complete them in two hours or less, the researchers said.
În unele cazuri, cancerele de colon pot cauza sângerări la nivelul tractului digesttiv, ceea ce duce la apariţia sângelui în fecale sau fecale de culoare închisă. Uneori cancerul poate bloca colonul, numită obstrucţie intestinală.
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